t The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of young red wines produced by spontaneous and inoculated fermentations of Karalahna (KL) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) grapes and to identify the yeasts responsible for spontaneous fermentation by molecular methods. A total of 28 volatile compounds in KL wines and 35 compounds in CS wines were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The concentration of higher alcohols and esters differed significantly among spontaneously fermented and inoculated wines. Spontaneous fermentation resulted in greater amount of higher alcohols in KL wines, while inoculated wines had greater amount of higher alcohols in CS wines. Spontaneously fermented KL and CS wines showed greater amounts of esters than inoculated wines. KL wines obtained by spontaneous fermentation had significantly higher scores than inoculated wines based on fruity and green aromas, body and overall impression. Spontaneously fermented CS wines were found significantly higher in fruity and floral aromas than inoculated wines.