The Effect of Animation-Based Worked Examples Supported with Augmented Reality on the Academic Achievement, Attitude and Motivation of Students towards Learning Programming

Cevahir H., Özdemir M., Baturay M. H.

Participatory Educational Research , vol.9, no.3, pp.226-247, 2022 (Scopus)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Journal Name: Participatory Educational Research
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.226-247
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


This study examines the effect of using animation-based worked examples (ARAWEs) that are prepared using Augmented Reality (AR) technology instead of using traditional paper-based worked examples (TWEs) on the achievement, motivation, and attitude of high school students during their programming education. The research was designed through the “Nonequivalent Control Group Model”, one of the quasi-experimental models. The participants consisted of second year students (N=94) who were taking the “Basics of Programming” course in the Department of Information Technologies a vocational and technical Anatolian high school in Turkey. An achievement test was applied to the participants as pre-test and final test. Motivation of the students was measured by means of the “Instructional Materials Motivation Survey” developed by Kutu and Sözbilir (2011), and participant attitudes towards using AR was measured by means of the “AR Attitude Scale” developed by Küçük, Yılmaz, Baydaş and Göktaş (2014). According to the results, both the achievement and motivation levels of the students studying on ARAWEs increased significantly compared to those studying on TWEs. There was a high level of correlation between the final test scores and the attitude levels of the students studying on ARAWEs. Considering that instructional materials containing animation-based worked examples prepared using AR technology increase students' interest and motivation in the subject, their use in lessons that include teaching problem solving skills, such as mathematics, physics, and chemistry, can be implemented in future studies.