A constructivist approach has been adopted in Turkey as a result of the primary curriculum that was implemented in the 2005-2006 academic year. This approach, which emphasizes students' activeness in the learning process and the importance of alternative assessment approaches, is changing perceptions of learning. It has therefore become necessary to provide best practices for active learning and alternative assessment approaches, such as self-assessment and peer assessment, for pre-service teachers during their education. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of self- and peer assessment on primary pre-service teachers' pedagogical beliefs and the self-efficacy of alternative assessment in active learning environments. A quasi-experimental (pre-test/post-test) research design with a control group was used in this research study. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the effects of active learning practices supported by alternative assessment methods on pre-service teachers' professional development. The findings of this research contribute to the debate on effective teacher education.